Posts Tagged With: climate

Snow on the Mountain

One of the many amazing things about the Big Island is its climate diversity. Worldwide, ecologists recognize 14 distinct climate zones; I won’t bore you with all their names but they include things like “Continuously Wet Warm Temperate”, “Hot Semi-Desert”, etc. The point is, that ten of the 14 are found on the Big Island, making it the most climatologically-diverse place on the planet. And so it came to pass that as we drove north and east from Kona to the higher elevations of Kohala, we left behind some of the coastal clouds and most of the tropical vegetation in favor of cloudless windswept grasslands and a stunning view of 14,000 ft Mauna Kea, recently crowned by a snowfall:

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This is about a 90 degree panorama; a similar one taken facing in the opposite direction would show Mauna Loa (which, unexpectedly, does not have any snow on it despite being the same height). The bulbous cinder cone at left — the gentle remnant of some ancient lava vent — is a few hundred feet high and is in the foreground; Mauna Kea’s snow-capped peak is 18 miles away in this picture. Here’s a better (and more artistic!) view of the mountain:

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Zoom in a little to the left of the summit and you’ll see what brought me to the Big Island in the first place:

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(Actually, that’s not technically true. The telescopes that you can see in this image had not yet been built when I was here over 30 years ago, working at a different observatory that is not visible in this photo.) The two identical white domes are the twin telescopes of the Keck Observatory, each 10 m/33 ft (!) in diameter and acting in concert to combine their signals to achieve enormous detail and sensitivity. To the right of the two domes you can make out the gray cylinder of the Subaru Telescope, yet another behemoth whose mirror is 8.2 m/27 ft across. (To give you an idea of how far we’ve come, the telescope I worked at had a 3.8 m/12.5 ft mirror, which was one of the largest in the world at the time.)

Now, at this point, you may be thinking, “Why did they name a big telescope after a Japanese car?” Well, it is a Japanese observatory but cars do not enter into it. “Subaru” is the Japanese word for the Pleiades constellation, and both the car and the telescope are named after them. This very likely answers a question that you never thought to ask. (And now that I’ve got your attention, “Mitsubishi” means “three diamonds” — take a look at the car logo. You’re welcome.)

Where was I? Ah, right. Snow. Mauna Kea does not get snow every winter, but when it does the snowfall can range from a dusting to a downright blizzard that can drop a couple of feet of the white stuff with disturbingly little warning. Indeed, the winter before I arrived, two astronomers got caught out by a storm and were stranded in one of the observatories for a few days, burning furniture for warmth and eating an emergency supply of canned goods. (I know them and trust me, they are still dining out on that story.)

Because of the occasional snow, the Big Island advertises itself as the only tropical island in the world where you can ski. This is quite true, but take my word for it: I’m a skier and do not recommend the experience. There is no recreation infrastructure whatsoever: no lifts, no trails, no nothing. You drive to the summit in your four wheel drive, step into your skis, and head downhill in whatever direction seems to have the most snow whilst praying to the Almighty that you do not wipe out and cut yourself to bloody ribbons on the underlying lava rock. Then at the end of your couple hundred yard run, which takes about 30 seconds if you’re lucky, you take off your skis, sling them over your shoulder, and trudge back to the summit on foot. Then you die of a heart attack because nobody in his right mind would schlep up a steep lava-strewn mountainside at 14,000′ altitude while wearing ski boots.

Back to climate zones. As you can see in the photos, the sky was nearly cloudless, the terrain like a prairie. What you cannot see in the photo was the 30 mph wind that made it nearly impossible to point the camera. And so we continued on, and within five minutes were in yet another climate zone, the “Continuously Wet Warm Temperate” that I mentioned earlier, in the town of Waimea at 2500′ elevation. What that meant in practice was a chilly, misting fog and intermittent light drizzle, a rather dramatic contrast to where we had been literally five minutes earlier. The Big island is like this.

Our first destination was lunch and malasadas — especially malasadas — at the locally famous Tex Drive In, which I wrote about in this space a year ago. I am happy to report that the good people there have not lost their touch. Then we moved on to Waipio Valley, a destination that we failed to reach last year because it was closed off due to an outbreak of dengue fever. That particular danger has since abated, and so we drove to the valley’s striking lookout point, the mist and drizzle notwithstanding:

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The valley has a sacred history, supposedly the place where Kamehameha met with the war god Kukailimoku in 1780 to be informed of his destiny to unite the islands. At the time it hosted a population of several thousand. Today only about 50 people live there full time, variously farming taro, raising marijuana, or hiding from civilization in general. It’s a stunning setting for any of those activities, bounded by 2000 ft cliffs and dotted with waterfalls, site of many a skinny-dipping party in my salad days. The black sand beach is gorgeous though it can be treacherous with currents.

(One of my beloved activities in those days was to fly a small plane out to the head of the valley, sideslip down to a few hundred feet above the valley floor, and then zoom out to the ocean at treetop level. This was illegal, dangerous, and wonderful. I always wondered whether any of the pakololo (marijuana) growers would shoot at me, but I never found any bullet holes in the fuselage afterwards, so I guess not. Or they were too wasted to aim accurately.)

The only way down into the valley is via a very steep (25% grade), very winding, and very poorly-maintained road. Your choices are walking or four wheel drive, period. As it happens, our rental car on this trip is a Jeep Grand Cherokee that enjoys about 27 different 4WD settings on a control panel slightly less complicated than the Large Hadron Collider. The car’s user manual is — and I swear this is true — 745 pages long. But we all know that no one reads user manuals, so I pressed the 4WD button that said “Auto” and basically drove off the cliff. Amazingly, we got to the bottom in one piece, and drove around for a bit along the mud path that parallels the river. We made for the black sand beach but were eventually stymied by a puddle the size and depth of Lake Champlain that looked too daunting even for our Testosterone-Mobile. There were two young Canadian women hiking past the obstacle at that moment, about to commence the long trudge uphill, so we turned around, picked them up, and drove back up the hillside as they thanked us repeatedly. (As well they might. On the way down we passed a few Japanese families with a small children in tow, heading down into the valley. I can only imagine the scene as they tried to cajole those kids back up the cliffside afterwards. They’re probably still down there, praying for a kindly stranger with a large Jeep.)

We drove home afterwards, back through the fog, back across the windy prairie, overseen by the two giant mountains, back across to our familiar beach and hot weather. So I’ll close with a final view of Waipio, and today’s serene sunset as viewed from our lanai.

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Oh, Kohala!

The Big Island is actually built out of five volcanos:

  • Kilauea (currently in eruption, and probably the major tourist draw on the island)
  • Mauna Loa (active, but not erupting right now)
  • Mauna Kea (dormant, fortunately for all the observatories atop it)
  • Hualalai (dormant and probably extinct for the past 200 years)
  • Kohala (extinct)

That last one — Kohala — is long extinct and basically is the entire northwest corner of the island, a huge and ancient shield volcano about 5000′ (1600 m) high that itself forms one of the island’s many distinct climate zones. It is now as much a region as a singular mountain, and worth a dedicated visit or two. So we struck out this morning to do exactly that. It’s about an hour and a half north of our house, and so we cruised up the coast, our local palm-lined streets soon giving away to the wasteland of lava and scrub that I described earlier. Here’s the view looking inland from the coast highway.

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The view in the other direction is a sea of rippling black hard lava, reaching down to the sea.

Being at higher elevation, Kohala is cooler than the coast and also catches some of the trade winds blowing from the east, the result being that it supports more temperate types of vegetation: grasslands and coniferous trees. It is even cattle country, and it is a common sight to see herds of cattle grazing on the grass-covered volcanic slopes.  Those domes in this landscape photo are old volcanic cinder cones.

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The architecture of Kohala’s few small towns reflects the history of cattle grazing and has a charming and slightly offbeat Wyoming-meets-Hawaii vibe, with a dash of Sedona, as you can see here. But cattle are definitely part of the culture: there is even a Hawaiian word for “cowboy”: paniolo.

Kohala-003The “Sedona” part is not obvious in this picture, but as you walk or drive slowly through the towns of Hawi and Waimea the “warmed-over hippie” gestalt emerges pretty quickly, as about two-thirds of the businesses are notional antique stores or one form or another of local crafts. There are many bandannas in sight. The towns are small and charming. But aside from the tropical flowers, such as the birds of paradise plants that you see above, the pine trees and rolling grasslands stand in odd conjunction to the overgrown cinder cones, and if you were blindfolded and surreptitiously transported here you might well have a very hard time guessing that you were in Hawaii. There’s not a palm tree or a coconut in sight.

Hawi with its 1500 residents is sort of the spiritual center of Kohala, the northernmost town on the Big Island. Because it sits at the northern end of the peninsula that is Kohala itself, it is a reliably windy place and thus unsurprisingly the site of what has to be the world’s most picturesquely-situated wind power farm.

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You can see some cinder cones in the background . More spectacularly, the wind far overlooks the Alenuihaha Channel, which is the narrow piece of the Pacific separating the Big Island from Maui, the next island up in the chain. So here is the view from the road just above the wind farm.

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That’s Maui sticking out of the clouds, about 1/3 of the way in from the left. You can see one of the windmills at lower right.

We made a driving loop around the peninsula, then headed back down the coast to home. But no such trip would be complete with sampling some local food, and so we stopped at a poke (pronounced “pokey”) house, poke being by itself a reason to visit Hawaii. It is marinated sushi, usually ahi though other fish are used as well, seasoned in various ways such as with sesame, or soy, or hot sauce. You generally want to get a bowl of it over rice with a side of sesame seaweed salad, served over rice in a downtrodden-looking place like this one. If you have never tried this, do so. You can thank me later.Kohala-013

 

 

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